Here are the presentations and papers from a recent Brookings conference on aid. Most of them relate to the macro v. micro initiative debate, recently stirred up by Prof. Banerjee from MIT.
However the most interesting thing is a set of slides from Nancy Birsall's Center for Global Development on an idea for development programmes delivered through 'Cash on Delivery' (COD).
The idea is that donors would only get paid for their outcomes (not inputs). For example, a donor working on education would receive $100 for every child who completed a year of primary school. This would obviously put much greater pressure on donors to perform.